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Authors: ErnestMah, TimFeeney, KathrynFryer
Build basis: IBM Engineering Lifecycle Management 6.x and later

This page describes best practices for building reports in the Engineering Lifecycle Management (ELM) solution with the Jazz Reporting Service (JRS) and Report Builder. Some practices are more generic, related to good report design. Others are more specific to the ELM and Report Builder capabilities. Following good practices is important to ensure your reports are usable and perform with appropriate use of system resources.

General good reporting practices

Make each report "fit for purpose"

Clearly define who will consume the report, and what they will use it for. What decision or action do they need to take? What information is required? Scope your report to include only the needed data, so consumers can quickly digest the results. Avoid "general purpose" results intended for use by different consumers with different needs; those reports tend to include a superset of data, which can result both in a slower-running report, and more difficulty for user to filter out the data they don't need. If your report is very complex and includes large amounts of data, consider whether you could decompose it into a set of smaller, more targeted reports that could be grouped on a dashboard or consumed independently for specific needs.

Manage by exception

An extension to tailoring a report for its purpose, focus on the data that's important for that purpose. Structure reports to highlight where action is needed. For example, if you need to tackle outstanding defects, do you really need data on all the closed defects? Reports that return large quantities of data make it hard for consumers to quickly scan and locate the important information, especially in tables that cross multiple pages. Including more data than necessary can impact report performance as well as the consumer's ability to consume the information.

Consider all the reporting technologies at your disposal, and which is most appropriate for your needs

JRS and Report Builder help you create traceability and statistical reporting. Report Builder generates interactive tables and graphs, and supports options to export results (or the query itself) to different formats.

Other tools such as IBM Engineering Lifecycle Optimization Publishing (PUB) can generate formatted documents; for some reports, a document might be easier to consume than an interactive online report. PUB also provides capabilities different from Report Builder, including style sheets to control format on the page, document comparison, and scripting. For more details on PUB, including the web-based Document Builder interface for users to generate documents, see Jazz.net.

Manage what you include on dashboards

Minimize the number of reports and widgets on common "landing" dashboard pages, or those with high or frequent use, so the system isn't constantly running those reports as each user opens the dashboard. To manage dashboard load time and load against your reporting server, put a small number of widgets on each tab; to help users, you can group them by consumer or purpose. Ideally dashboard reports return a relatively small result set. Put reports with large result sets or long run times on a separate tab, so they are run only as needed. You might even exclude some reports from the dashboard catalog, so users run them only via the Report Builder interface, or schedule them.

Establish experts in your organization

Report Builder allows users to write their own reports. It's important that all report creators understand the reporting best practices to ensure the reports they create consume appropriate amount of resources. If you can establish one or more experts within your organization, users can contact those experts for additional guidance or assistance in improving their reports.

Practices related to ELM capabilities

Consider scheduling and sharing reports

Both Report Builder and Document Builder provide the capability to schedule reports and store the generated output. Schedule reports that consume more resources (due to large result sets, complexity, and so on) to run during times of lower system demands. One example is "the Monday morning status report" that everyone on the team wants to see; schedule it to run Sunday night so it is both ready and the team all see the same results from the same point in time. Note: The Lifecycle Query Engine (LQE) server does need some occasional quiet times where no queries are running, so it can complete all write-to-disk operations.

Define your type system consistently (with URIs) to facilitate reuse

You likely want some reports to be reusable, so you can run them for different organizations with the same need (for example, different teams can run the "Outstanding Defects" report for their set of artifacts). In that case, those organizations need some consistency in the attributes and attribute values they use, and also that you define the reports to support reuse, instead of tailoring them to the values of a specific team.

If you are using global configuration management, it is critical to define URIs for artifact types, attributes, and attribute values, to improve ease of building reports as well as reusing across teams. (See also Maintaining your DOORS Next type system in a configuration-management-enabled environment.). If teams do have variant type systems or specific needs, consider defining separate reports. Balance between reuse and 'fit for purpose', team consistency vs team variance.

Building reports with Report Builder

Choose the right data source

The first step in Report Builder is selecting your data source; depending what is deployed in your environment, the list might include the Data Warehouse (DW), LQE, LQE scoped by a configuration, or one or more configuration-based data sources. If you are using global configuration management, you must use LQE scoped by a configuration (or a configuration-based data source) to report on versioned artifacts; use LQE to report on configurations and components themselves. For unversioned artifacts (including work items, and all artifacts NOT using global configuration management), the DW provides a richer set of time-based metrics. For more information on which data source to choose, see the ELM Knowledge Center.

Start simple and add complexity

Reports can get very complicated as you build conditions and relationships. A good rule of thumb is to start with a very simple version of the report you want, and ensure it runs correctly. Then gradually layer on relationships, conditions, calculations, custom expressions, and so on, verifying at each step that your results are as expected. (Note that the Report Builder preview shows only a sampling of data; you need to run the report to view actual results.)

Use filters to narrow scope of results

Use project scoping, specific artifact types, relationships, and conditions to limit the amount of data returned. Retrieving large amounts of data, then applying filters or joins, can increase the run time and the memory demands.
  • Where appropriate, set project area scope
  • Use traceability paths and conditions to scope the artifacts returned.
    • Use container-like relationships, for example, to scope requirements by a module, test results by a test plan, work items by an iteration.
    • Constrain scope as early as possible in the traceability path, which limits the number of results to evaluate for the rest of the path. You can continue to add conditions for artifacts later in the path.

Keep traceability paths as simple as possible

Large, complex traceability paths can increase the time and resources required to run a report. In general, wherever possible:
Avoid optional relationships
Optional relationships take much longer to evaluate, especially if they lead to other relationships and multiple paths to trace. The more optional relationships you include, the more paths there are to consider, and typically that causes the report to run longer or even time out. As an alternative, use two paths: one where the relationship doesn't exist, and one where it is required. You can then further extend the traceability for the case where the relationship is required. If you must have an optional relationship, put it at the end of the traceability path to reduce the number of paths to evaluate.
Minimize many-to-many relationships, and one-to-many relationships
These take longer to evaluate, and you can sometimes run into issues with conditions applied at an early point in the path, which no longer apply later. For an example, see the example on scoping relationship paths.
Append results instead of merging
For multiple paths, appending results is faster than merging, which requires additional operations. That said, there are cases where you need to merge results. As described above, it is better to merge two paths than to use an optional relationship.
If your report requires complex traceability paths, keep it as simple as possible while still achieving your goals. Test your reports for performance. If you encounter problems, simplify your paths and add back on. Consider whether there are alternative paths to access the same data. Some reports might take longer to run, in which case you might consider scheduling them to run during times of low server usage. See the ELM Knowledge Center for more details on traceability paths.

Set conditions to further limit the result set

Use conditions to further filter the set of data that is returned. You can save the conditions as part of the report, or allow (or require) users to change them at run time.
  • In traceability paths, apply conditions as early in the path as possible, to limit results to be evaluated later in the path.
  • Minimize exclusion conditions (where the value "is not" or "none of"), which take longer to process. Where possible, re-frame the condition to search for the values that you do want or that do exist.
  • Minimize combining conditions with OR. It takes longer to process an OR condition, because it has to be applied near the end of all processing. Report Builder can break down AND conditions to run more efficiently.
  • For time series or trend reports, limit the time interval to manage the size of result sets. Larger time intervals increase the load on the server.
  • For versioned artifacts (using global configuration management), to scope results to a specific component or set of components, set a condition for the artifact type based on its Component value. Note that the generic OSLC artifact type (for example, "Requirement") does not include a Component attribute.

Eliminate data columns you don't need to see

On the Formatting tab, remove data columns that you don't need in the final report. For example, you might not need to see the project area value, or if you have a condition to show a single specific status value, you might not need to show the value in the report itself. If you remove a column with condition data, the system still evaluates the condition to run the report, but it doesn't need to return and render that data.

To build a graph, get the table right first

Use the table view to ensure you have the right data and any necessary calculations, before you switch to the graph design view. It is usually easier to debug data issues from the table view.

Use meaningful labels

For both tables and graphs, the default labels generated by Report Builder might not be meaningful to report consumers. Where appropriate, replace labels for data columns with more meaningful text. Provide useful labels for graph axes and legends. For graphs, ensure colours are easy to differentiate (and remember those who are colour-blind).

Understand your data model

The Data Warehouse data model is reasonably well-documented in the Knowledge Centre; you can also use database tools to query the tables. LQE builds a dynamic schema based on the data it indexes from your organization. Understand how your organization defines artifact types, attributes, and relationships. Sometimes there is more than one approach to reporting on artifacts in a relationship. Examples of possible impacts:
  • Base and module artifacts in DOORS Next Generation. Because base and module instances have unique URIs, you can get multiple results for a single artifact. Conversely, if you filter based on module, an artifact or its metadata might be included or excluded. Use a consistent strategy for modules, linking requirements, and reporting.
  • Scoping in relationship paths. A scoping or filtering condition set on one artifact does not necessarily scope artifacts later in the traceability path. For example, you might query a QM Test Plan with all of its QM Test Cases, and all of the Test Case Results. However, the Test Case could have Results that are associated with multiple Test Plans; those would all be returned because the relationship is valid. Understand the relationships between the artifacts and where scope might change, and build your path accordingly. In this example, you would query the Test Plan and its Results (which are associated to only one Test Plan), and then the Test Cases (a Result has only one Test Case).

Remember you might need to refresh data

If you are building reports in a pre-production environment, you might be creating data as you build your report. If you are using the Data Warehouse, the data will only be available after the next data collection job completes. If you are using LQE, you might need to manually refresh the metamodel to reflect changes to metadata.

If you need to modify the generated query, use custom expressions or make a copy

In some cases, you might want to further manipulate the data returned by Report Builder, for example to change the display format or perform more complex calculations. Where possible, use Custom Expressions to include custom SQL (for DW) or SPARQL (LQE) operations within the Report Builder UI. If that is not sufficient, you can edit the generated query directly; however, be aware that this means you can no longer use the Report Builder UI to modify that report, filtering options for the report will be constrained, and you won't be able to drill down within the report results. If you must edit the generated query directly:
  1. Do as much as you can in Report Builder first.
  2. Save your report, and make a copy.
  3. In the copy, edit the query in the Advanced section.
  4. If you are making extensive changes, ensure you narrow scope as soon as possible in the query.
  5. Ensure you test your query thoroughly, with representative result size, and optimize for performance.

Test report performance

Especially for reports with large result sets or time series, complex traceability or calculations, test the performance with a representative sample size. You might find ways to optimize the report to improve performance, or manage how the report is run (for example, scheduled and not included on a dashboard).

For administrators

Define a tagging and folder taxonomy

Both Report Builder and Document Builder use tags to group reports into a folder-like structure; you can also search/filter based on tags. Allowing all report creators to define their own tags can lead to confusion (typos, near duplicates, and so on) and make it difficult to locate reports. Define a taxonomy that makes sense for your organization so users can easily locate the reports they need, and report creators donít have to make up their own tags.

Ensure appropriate LQE server size

The LQE server operates as both data source and query executor, and requires adequate resources to handle report demands as well as indexing data updates. For details on sizing your LQE server, see Best practices for configuring LQE for performance and scalability.

Monitor LQE performance

Use the Health page in the LQE application administration and the other ELM monitoring capabilities (including MBeans) to monitor the health and performance of the LQE server. You can identify reports and queries that are consuming system resources, and in some cases, stop them. Capabilities vary depending on the ELM version you are using. For more details on monitoring, see Monitoring, Monitoring Jazz applications using JMX MBeans, and Monitoring LQE using MBeans. Administrators can also limit query results and use other LQE properties to manage performance; see LQE Properties for details.

Set property to optimize for large project areas (6.0.6 and later)

When reporting against very large project areas, Report Builder (LQE?) can optimize the query differently to improve performance. To enable this run-time optimization, edit the conf/rs/app.properties file and set large.project.query.optimization=true. Save the file and restart JRS to apply the change. You don't need to modify any reports. Note: This property is supported as of 6.0.6 iFix15, 6.0.6.1 iFix9, 7.0, or later. It is not available in earlier versions.

Tips for reporting on configurations

Reports for multiple configurations on same dashboard

Dashboard report widgets default to using your current configuration context. However, you can change that default. To show the same report for multiple configurations at once, you can add multiple instances of the report widget, and set the filter of each one to a different specific configuration context. Ensure that you also consider the overall content of the dashboard tab. You can also use PUB to create a template that iterates through multiple configuration contexts to collect the specified data for each.

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