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Jazz monitoring through JMX

Authors: JorgeAlbertoDiaz, PaulEllis, GeraldMitchell
Build basis: CLM and SSE Jazz products

Knowing how your application server is behaving is very important, and a good administrator can identify these things: when Jazz servers need more resources, deployment usage patterns, the potential cause of issues. If you need to know how your JVM is running, or how many threads are in use, a simple and relatively fast way of setting up monitoring by using Java Management Extensions (JMX) is described below.

Java Management Extensions (JMX) is a Java technology standard for the management and monitoring of Java applications. JMX provides a set of tools and APIs for the instrumentation and monitoring of Java applications, and these are included as part of standard Java libraries since J2SE 5.0. Both Apache Tomcat and WebSphere Application Server implement JMX, which provides interfaces for administration and exposes resource monitoring information. This page will focus on how to leverage JMX for basic monitoring of your Jazz servers.

While enterprise-level monitoring tools will define ways of connecting to the servers to gather and use this JMX information (some with custom clients that are API based), this topic will show how you can connect using JConsole for real-time monitoring of your servers as a simple and fast approach for gaining insight on your servers' status. JConsole is a lightweight monitoring tool that you can find as part of JDK located in JDK_HOME/bin. You can use the JConsole-based examples as guideline for configuring some other similar clients of your choice. You can learn about JConsole, and how to use it while applying the configuration options in this topic, at Using JConsole

You can learn more about JMX technology here.

WebSphere Application Server, JMX, and JConsole

The system management functionality of WebSphere Application Server is based on the use of Java Management Extensions (JMX). Therefore, the WebSphere Application Server administrative console and "wsadmin" scripting client use JMX. In addition, the JMX API can be used to provide custom client programs or contribute custom MBeans. WebSphere Application Server comes with a set of connectors that can be used to interact with its JMX infrastructure (WebSphere Application Server connectors in the information center).

While enterprise monitoring solutions will typically provide their own clients for WebSphere, or provide instructions for using WebSphere connectors; the focus of this topic is to provide some easy steps you can take to connect to JConsole and inspect monitoring information. It is important, however, to take the following points into consideration:

  • The focus of this topic is on WebSphere Application Server versions 7 and 8.0. JConsole is not supported for these application server versions, but some possible configurations based on experience are introduced.
  • WebSphere Application Server 8.5 provides a new connector that eases connectivity for using JConsole.

Platform MBean server for connecting with JConsole

This method consists of customizing the server JVM properties with a set of properties to override the WebSphere Application Server custom MBean server and force the configuration of platform MBean server. This method is simple to implement but has a some disadvantages:

  • The configuration is not supported.
  • It is not integrated with WebSphere Application Server security infrastructure.
  • WebSphere custom MBeans are not exposed with this configuration.

Complete the following steps for this configuration:

   1. Open the !WebSphere administrative console and navigate to this location: 
         *Servers > Server Types > WebSphere Application Server > <your_server>* 

   2. On the server configuration page navigate to this location:
         *Java and Process Management > Process Definition > Additional Properties > Java Virtual Machine* 
   3. Add the following entries to the *Generic JVM Arguments* section:

      -Djavax.management.builder.initial= -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099 -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false

      Note there is a space in the "-Djavax.management.builder.initial= " argument after the equals sign. 

   4. Click *OK* and *Save to master configuration* when prompted.

This configuration is only meant for testing purposes. If you launch JConsole you will be able to connect to your WebSphere server at the specified port (1099 in this case), without the need to specify credentials .

Using JSR160RMI Connector for JConsole

By default, the CLM Server Monitoring will use the default JVM platform MBean server. On WebSphere using the default JVM MBean server is an unsupported configuration so an extra flag needs to be supplied as a JVM initialization parameter to instruct CLM Server Monitoring to use the WebSphere Mbean Server instead of the JVM one.

Complete the following steps for this configuration:

   1. Open the !WebSphere administrative console and navigate to this location: 
         *Servers > Server Types > WebSphere Application Server > <your_server>* 

   2. On the server configuration page navigate to this location:
         *Java and Process Management > Process Definition > Additional Properties > Java Virtual Machine* 
   3. Add the following entries to the *Generic JVM Arguments* section:


   4. Click *OK* and *Save to master configuration* when prompted.

This example shows how to use the WebSphere JSR160RMI connector. Beyond some basic configuration steps for the connector, connecting with JConsole will have to take into account that special libraries are needed to connect to a custom WebSphere JMX MBean server, and that the connector is integrated with WebSphere security.

The following configuration steps for the connector are needed:

  • Enable JSR160RMI Connector: In the WebSphere Application Server administrative console, navigate to Servers > Server Types > App Servers > > Administration > Administration Services > JMX Connectors. If the "!JSR160RMI Connector" is not enabled, enable it and click OK and Save to master configuration when prompted.

  • Check RMI port: This is the port that will be used for connecting with JConsole, so check the value of "BOOTSTRAP_ADDRESS" (default is usually 2809), at Servers > Server Types > App Servers > > Ports.

The following JConsole scripst that will connect to the JSR160RMI connector. Note that the script is in Linux format, for Microsoft Windows adapt it accordingly. An explanation of the main scritpt elements will follow, so it can be tailored to match your environment:

Windows CMD:

@echo off
set WAS_HOME=C:\Program Files\IBM\WebSphere\AppServer
set HOST=clmjts.jazz.net
set PORT=2809
set PROTOCOL=rmi
set PROFILE=nodeagent

call "%WAS_HOME%\profiles\%PROFILE%\bin\setupCmdLine.bat"

set CLASSPATH="%JAVA_HOME%\lib\jconsole.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%JAVA_HOME%\lib\tools.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%JAVA_HOME%\jre\lib\ibmpkcs.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%JAVA_HOME%\jre\lib\ext\ibmkeycert.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%JAVA_HOME%\jre\lib\ext\ibmjceprovider.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%WAS_HOME%\runtimes\com.ibm.ws.admin.client_8.0.0.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%WAS_HOME%\runtimes\com.ibm.ws.ejb.thinclient_8.0.0.jar"
set CLASSPATH=%CLASSPATH%;"%WAS_HOME%\runtimes\com.ibm.ws.orb_8.0.0.jar"

"%JAVA_HOME%\bin\java" -classpath %CLASSPATH% -Dcom.ibm.IPC.ConfigURL=file:"%WAS_HOME%\profiles\%PROFILE%/properties/ipc.client.props" -Dcom.ibm.CORBA.ConfigURL=file:"%WAS_HOME%\profiles\%PROFILE%/properties/sas.client.props" -Dcom.ibm.SOAP.ConfigURL=file:"%WAS_HOME%\profiles\%PROFILE%/properties/soap.client.props" -Dcom.ibm.SSL.ConfigURL=file:"%WAS_HOME%\profiles\%PROFILE%/properties/ssl.client.props" sun.tools.jconsole.JConsole service:jmx:%PROTOCOL%://%HOST%:%PORT%/jndi/JMXConnector

Unix BASH:


. $WAS_HOME/profiles/$PROFILE/bin/setupCmdLine.sh


$JAVA_HOME/bin/java \
   -classpath $CLASSPATH \
   sun.tools.jconsole.JConsole \

From the script you can configure. (Take note of the values configured here for future reference and configuration):

  • WAS_HOME: The base directory of the WebSphere installation
  • HOST: The host to connect to (where WebSphere is installed)
  • PORT: The port to connect (eg. 2809)
  • PROTOCOL: The protocol to use (eg. rmi)
  • PROFILE: The Websphere profile being used by the WebSphere server being monitored

This configuration works for WebSphere Application Server versions 7, 8.0, and 8.5

The scripts will run and may prompt for a WebSphere username/password (depending on your WebSphere authentication.) You can use the WebSphere administrator.

Liberty profile local connector and JConsole

The WebSphere Application Server 8.5 Liberty profile provides a new connector which can be easily used for connecting with JConsole. You can find more information in the related information center topic. The Liberty profile has been supported since CLM6.0.1. The InfoCenter now documents how to use this with JMX in both local and secure modes.

Interacting with the WebSphere JMX API and scripting

Beyond the introduced possible configurations for connecting with JConsole, you can also build a custom application using JMX API to retrieve information from MBeans. You can check the following information center topics:

What you can glean from monitoring with JConsole

First, this is not a tool that will provide you with historical data. This is a tool to see how your system is running and over the time that JConsole is running. For detailed information on how to use this console, see the guides provided by the web server application vendor. The main theme of this page is to show how to set up the monitoring.

So, what can you now see? At a glance, via the Overview tab, you can see:

  1. Threads
    b. Heap memory usage
    c. CPU usage
    d. Classes

There is also a VM Summary tab that provides you and any troubleshooter, such as Rational Client Support, a host of valuable information about your setup.

Setting up your Jazz Team Server on Apache Tomcat to use JMX

Activating JMX is achieved by setting a set of Java system properties for the Apache Tomcat server JVM. These can be appended in your CLMAPPHOME/server/server.startup script using the "JAVA_OPTS" notation, as other options you find in the script. The following list provides a set of commonly used configuration options. You can find a complete set of available properties for JMX configuration on J2SE 5.0 JMX and J2SE 6.0 JMX.

There is also additional information regarding JMX and the parameters that can be set within Monitoring and managing Apache Tomcat

Option 1: JMX not secured

The following properties would activate JMX on Apache Tomcat with no authentication. You could, therefore, connect to the server's JMX interface at the port specified by the option com.sun.management.jmxremote.port, without providing any type of credentials. This is something you won't set up in your production environments, but it's a good starting point if you want to look at the type of information that is exposed with JMX in a test or local environment.


   # for JMX monitoring
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099"   
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false" 
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false" 

Microsoft Windows:

   rem for JMX monitoring
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false

Note that in this option com.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate and com.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl properties are set to "false". The following examples will show options for securing the JMX server using that properties.

Connecting with JConsole: No special parameters need to be used for JConsole, as no security is configured. You can simply run JConsole and connect to service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://:1099/jmxrmi

Option 2: JMX with client authentication - No SSL

In this case, the example will show the properties needed to require client authentication based on a user ID and password, without SSL. The first important property to modify from the previous example is com.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate, now setting it to "true" (which is the default value). The authentication is managed by two additional properties and configuration files:

  • com.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file: This property specifies the location of the file that contains the information about access user roles and associated permissions.
  • com.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file: This property specifies the location of the file that contains the passwords for each role.

Sample files are located in the CLMAPPHOME/server/jre/lib/management folder, called jmxremote.access and jmxremote.password.template. An easy approach would be to perform the following steps:

  1. Make a copy of the files.
  2. Modify the copy to fit your needs.
  3. (Mandatory for the configuration to work) Change permissions to files so that only the Apache Tomcat server user is allowed to see its contents.

Following is an example of the JMX properties and sample files. You can use them as guidelines but check the official documentation to fine tune permissions:


   # for JMX monitoring
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099"   
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false" 
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true" 
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=<path>/jmxremote.access" 
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=<path>/jmxremote.password"

Microsoft Windows:

   rem for JMX monitoring
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=true
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.access.file=<path>\jmxremote.access
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.password.file=<path>\jmxremote.password

Sample jmxremote.access file defining two user roles: monitorRoleUser, which will have just read permissions to MBeans information; and controlRoleUser, which will have read-write permissions as well as the option to create some MBeans objects:

monitorRoleUser   readonly
controlRoleUser   readwrite \
              create javax.management.monitor.*,javax.management.timer.* \

Sample jmxremote.password file with the passwords that each user role will have:

monitorRoleUser  pass1
controlRoleUser  pass2

Connecting with JConsole: With this configuration, connecting by using JMX requires you to specify one of these monitorRoleUser or controlRoleUser users with its password in JConsole. You can launch JConsole with "jconsole service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://:1099/jmxrmi and then specify the user ID and password in the tool UI.

Option 3: JMX with SSL

The following information describes how to enable SSL in JMX for Apache Tomcat. There are, however, different degrees of securing with SSL that you can use:

  1. Securing server communication to use SSL: This is default configuration that in previous examples was overridden by setting com.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=false. This first option will secure communications via SSL by using a server certificate.
  2. JMX RMI registry SSL secured: Starting with JDK 6, an additional parameter was added to force the creation of an SSL-secured RMI registry as well.
  3. Set up client SSL authentication: The method enables client-side SSL-based authentication.

For a full SSL secured scenario you will implement all three options. The examples will cover a phased approach showing which additional parameters and steps are required in each case:

JMX with SSL for the server

For this configuration to work, the Apache Tomcat server must already be configured to use SSL. The Apache Tomcat server bundled with the Jazz applications already has SSL configured with a self-signed certificate, so this example shows how to use this existing configuration from your deployment for the JMX Tomcat interface (note that same steps would be applicable if you have modified the default self-signed certificate with your own).

First, you must identify the SSL configuration in Apache Tomcat to use it for JMX; so you must look at the server.xml Apache Tomcat configuration file that is located in CLMAPPHOME/server/tomcat/conf. The following sample shows a standard CLM deployment server.xml file:

    <Connector port="9443"
               ciphers="SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_MD5, SSL_RSA_WITH_RC4_128_SHA, TLS_RSA_WITH_AES_128_CBC_SHA, 

From that configuration file, important parameters to use are the keystoreFile and keystorePass. Putting it all together, you can modify the server.startup script as follows to enable SSL with the certificates from the server:


   # for JMX monitoring
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099"   
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=true" 
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false" 
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl.need.client.auth=false"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=ibm-team"
   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=tomcat/ibm-team-ssl.keystore"

Microsoft Windows:

   rem for JMX monitoring
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote=true
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.port=1099
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl=true
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS% -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.authenticate=false
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.ssl.need.client.auth=false
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=ibm-team
   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=tomcat/ibm-team-ssl.keystore

Connecting with JConsole: The JConsole client will need to import the certificate from the server and use it for the connection to take place. The following information describes how to use keytool to perform these steps. You can use alternative tools to accomplish the same tasks, so adjust the instructions if you use a different tool.

  • Export the certificate: From CLMAPPHOME/server/tomcat, you can run the following command to generate a file with the export of the public certificate (in the example called "jazz.cer"):

keytool -export -alias ibm-team -keystore ibm-team-ssl.keystore -file jazz.cer -storepass ibm-team

  • Copy the generated "jazz.cer" file to your preferred location.
  • Generate a trust store and import the certificate to be used by JConsole: For simplicity, the example uses "jconsole.truststore" and "password".

keytool -import -alias jconsole -file jazz.cer -keystore jconsole.truststore -storepass password -noprompt

  • Specify the "truststore" and "password" parameters when launching JConsole:

jconsole -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStore=jconsole.truststore -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword=ibm-team service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://<host>:1099/jmxrmi

JMX RMI registry SSL secured

You can enable this option by adding the following property to the set discussed for enabling SSL for the server:


   JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.registry.ssl=true"


   set JAVA_OPTS=%JAVA_OPTS -Dcom.sun.management.jmxremote.registry.ssl=true

The rest of the SSL configuration parameters remain the same. This will make the VM create an SSL-secured RMI registry at startup to use by the clients.

Connecting with JConsole: You would use the same configuration and parameters as discussed in "JMX with SSL for the server" subtopic.

Note that from this point, a full SSL-secured solution requires that you also activate client-level SSL authentication, which is discussed in the next example.

Set up client SSL authentication

Client authentication for JMX can be configured to be SSL-certificate based. The example shows how to configure JConsole this way, but similar steps are required for any other client to be configured this way. As a guideline, the general steps for this configuration are as follows:

  1. Create SSL key stores and trust stores for the client and server.
  2. Export certificates on each side.
  3. Exchange and import the certificates at the server and client level.

The bundled Apache Tomcat server has a key store, and previous steps have demonstrated how to export the certificate and import it in the client. The following examples will show the rest of configuration steps needed for implementing client authentication for JConsole. Sample values and self-signed certificates are used in the examples for clarity; you should adjust them to your environment policies:

* Create key store for JConsole: First, you must create a key store for the client.

 keytool -genkey -alias jconsole -keyalg RSA -validity 365 -keystore jconsole.keystore -storepass password -keypass password

  • Export the certificate from JConsole client: Export the public certificate.

 keytool -export -alias jconsole -keystore jconsole.keystore -file client.cer -storepass password

  • Import into the Apache Tomcat trust store: The following command will generate a new trust store.

 keytool -import -alias jconsole-ibm-team -file client.cer -keystore ibm-team-ssl.truststore -storepass ibm-team -noprompt 

  • Configure the server with the trust store: Add relevant properties to server.startup (Linux example), in addition to the ones for previous SSL configurations.


JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.trustStore=<path>/ibm-team-ssl.truststore"
JAVA_OPTS="$JAVA_OPTS -Djavax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword=ibm-team"

  • Connect to the server by using the new configuration: The following sample JConsole call uses these new assets. The authentication will be based on certificates exchange.

 jconsole -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStore=jconsole.truststore -J-Djavax.net.ssl.trustStorePassword=ibm-team  -J-Djavax.net.ssl.keyStore=jconsole.keystore -J-Djavax.net.ssl.keyStorePassword=password  service:jmx:rmi:///jndi/rmi://<host>:1099/jmxrmi 

Related topics: Deployment web home, Deployment web home

External links:

Additional contributors: ShubjitNaik, BorisKuschel

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Deployment.JazzMonitoringThroughJMX moved from Deployment.JmxMonitoring on 2013-06-18 - 12:59 by StevenBeard -
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